Joy of Art

Welcome to the "Joy of Art". I'm Wendy Thompson, and I enrolled in Art 101, because I'm a huge art aficionado. I favor B & W photograpy, watercolors, and impressionism. I visited the Louvre in Paris to see the "Mona Lisa". It's very SMALL! I have art that I hope will appraise for a mint on the "Antiques Roadshow" one day. I enjoy sailing, golf, and horseback riding. I'll graduate in December and transfer to the Univ. of MD. I'll also be studying at the Sorbonne in Paris next summer.

Friday, August 12, 2005

Museum Paper

The Dancers: The Museum Paper

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This paper examines the aspects of two great works of art and where they fit neatly into the history of art. It is apparent that these two works have similar subject matters: dancing. However, the time periods and styles differ greatly. "The Dance Lesson," circa 1879, by Edgar Degas is a painting done in France with the medium of oil on canvas. As is the case with most of Degas’ works, "Lesson" was done during the Impressionist movement. Historically, many revolutions -- from the Industrial to French Revolution -- were in the process of occurring or beginning, when the painting -- realistic in style -- was produced. In America, the Civil War and Reconstruction had ended. Italy had imprisoned their Pope Pius IX and christened Rome as their new capital. The phonograph, light, and telephone had been recently created. The German-Franco War in France was ending. In comparison and contrast, "The Dancing Couple," painted during the mid-17th century by Jan Steen is an oil on canvas work. Completed in the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands, Steen incorporated historical aspects such as the change in religious attitudes around the world into the painting. At the time, Sir Isaac Newton was writing about his theories on gravity. America was seeking independence from England, and England had abolished their monarchy rule and established the House of Lords to rule. During that period, people began turning away from the church, and Steen’s body of work became a visual and social commentary on these changes in morality and religion.

As stated, both paintings have similar subject matters, but that subject is examined from different perspectives in each work. In "Lesson," Degas presents a sober scene in a dance studio of a ballet lesson. To the far left in the painting sits a lone ballerina who seems to be in deep thought. Her presence sets the tone for the entire painting. The impression the viewer gets is that ballet is a discipline, to be approached with much contemplation and seriousness. In contrast, in "Couple," Steen’s expressions of elation and joy is evident. The list of characters appear to be at a celebration of sorts, perhaps a wedding celebration. Wine seems to be flowing freely and lending credence to the idea that this is a festive occasion.

In their designs, both Degas and Steen utilize lines, shape and colors to create interesting works of art. In "Lesson," Degas’ use of texture appears to come from hatchmarks, but upon taking a closer look at the original painting, it is clear that Degas allows the texture from the canvas itself to surface through the paint. The canvas fiber’s appearance is like hatchmarks. The use of light and dark values on the floor imply texture. Directional lines and one-point linear perspective orthogonals show aging in the floor and put the focus on the teacher and student in the center, respectively. Contour lines in the tutus illustrate fullness. The rectangular and square shapes of the wall and photo on the wall, respectively, are also examples of directional lines pulling the eye toward the actual lesson in the middle of the painting.

The colors or hues in "Lesson," soft earth tones, portray an old studio, and pastels seem to indicate the youthfulness of the dancers. The contrast in hues are evident as the vibrant pastel leotards and tutus, in colors of pink, red, and white, are vividly more appealing than the dingy, earth tones of the walls and floor. The young girl in the far left corner claims the spotlight, as her orange leotard contrasts her tutu. The leotard, like a green stalk is plumped down into the off-white, pastel cauliflower of a tutu.

In Steen’s "Couple," movement lines emphasize the costumes and ample bellies of the couple. Directional lines show the broadness of the vined canopy, pulling the viewer’s eyes towards the heavens and the church steeple in the background. Movement lines also appear in the pants and dress of the dancers. The movement is as if the eyes are traveling to the beat of the music. The eyes actually leap from person to person and object to object in a line. The canvas is filled with places for the eyes to land, from the barrel to the hanging baskets and the people behind the wooden fence. The colors, warm earth tones, give the feeling of commoners, brown and dingy faced, likely poor. The colors, deep and true in the women’s dresses are contrasted against the dull, earth tones of browns and greys. The implied lines drawn by the positioning of the revelers to the left create a triangular shape.

Steen’s use of space differs greatly from Degas’ technique. While both "Lesson" and "Couple" appear to give the allusion of 3-dimensional space, Steen uses overlapping to create depth in his painting. Both artists use asymmetrical balance to create two fully formulated works on canvas. Steen’s painting weighs more heavily on the left, as it is filled with the bulk of the attendees at the celebration. Not only is the right side more visibly lighter, but also physically lighter. The musicians are thinned out, scaling the vined canopy and the sky above them is well-lit from the sunshine. The visual light gives the viewer the impression that the right side is physically lighter than it actually is. Steen also employs atmospheric perspective in "Couple," as is evident with the trees and steeple in the background, which become smaller as they recede. Even the people standing in a huddled mass in the background are examples of atmospheric perspective.

On the other hand, Degas uses his space to establish a mood. The ballerinas are placed sufficiently apart from each other to foster a sense of solemnity. The rhythm is sporadic placements of buoyant tutus and legs that fill the room and space adequately. Between each blank space is a mini scene within the total scene in the painting. Degas’ use of space is brilliantly done as he recreates the bouffant tutus, that fill the room from the far left to the far right and back to the center. The painting is clearly 3-dimensional, as the large dance studio, in an L shape, has an almost infinite depth that seems to go on and on to the right on the canvas. Similar to "Couple," "Lesson" has elements of atmospheric perspective also. As the ballerinas on the far right wall recede into the background, they become smaller to the viewer. The painting has tremendous depth and great fullness. In the background, the dancers on the right practice and their movement causes the eyes to move to the right, but the eyes are led back to the center and eventually to the lone dancer sitting on the floor. There is a constant flow of gentle movement and the painting, in alluding to subtle feminine attributes, shows the fragile state of ballet and young girls in the learning process.

In "Couple," Steen uses movement lines, action and meticulously placed items such as wine to create a festive mood in the painting. There is even an air of humor exhibited. It is almost as if the music and clapping can be heard by simply looking at the painting. The dancing couple and the items strewn across the floor indicate that the celebration has gotten rather ruckus, at times. It is a scene of unadulterated indulgence.

In complete contrast is Degas’ "Lesson." As stated above, the mood is somber, reflective and meditative. The dancer in orange exemplifies feelings of introspection and seems to be contemplating -- or in deep thought, while the dancers in the center are in the midst of perfecting a dance routine. Just as the discipline of ballet is undertaken as a serious art form, those stoic, grave emotions are exhibited in Degas’ painting. The work is studious and serious in nature. The pastel colors lead the viewers to believe that this is merely a work of fantasy, but Degas, in his placement of the figures, elicits more sober emotions than those found in fairy tales.
As stated previously, both paintings by Degas and Steen are works done in oil on canvas. However, this description is not to indicate that the mediums are used in similar fashions. For instance, in "Couple," Steen uses fine, hidden brushstrokes, barely visible to the viewer. He also uses a buildup of thick glazes to present the shiny look of the women’s dresses. It has been noted that some Baroque painters -- as Steen was proven to be -- employed brushes with one bristle to apply their paint. In "Lesson," Degas utilizes the entire brush with large, thick brushstrokes. He used thick imposto paint to create the textured appearance. There are areas on the canvas where he thins the paint, allowing the texture to bleed through the paint.

The style for both "Couple" and "Lesson" is realistic. Each painting is an visual enactment of a common occurrence in everyday living. The celebration in the "Couple" and the practice session during a ballet lesson in "Lesson" are all a part of life found in most advanced societies. In both paintings, the viewer could reasonably envision his or herself stepping right into the scene on the canvas.

In conclusion, I found both Degas and Steen to be dissimilar in the techniques used to portray similar topics: dancing. Degas’ painting is more art for art’s sake, while Steen’s work is more didactic and religious in nature. Not only did I enjoy viewing these two paintings, but the historical research and meaning behind the works were equally as interesting. Steen had an otherwise unhealthy obsession with religion and used every opportunity to espouse his beliefs in his art. So, while his art was vibrant and energetic, like "Couple," his motives were founded in his religious ambitions to school others about morality. Ironically, in "Couple," he appeared to be making statements against the excesses in vanity and the lack of reverence for godly pursuits. This was evident, as the revelers celebrated in the foreground, while in the background stood a lone church steeple, representing the position society placed God during the 17th century. My amusement in viewing Steen’s art came during attempts to decipher the moral statement that Steen was making in his presentations. Searching the painting for clues was half the fun of viewing it.

Degas was equally as fascinating as an artist and sculptor. His obsession with the body form aided in his exquisite projects on canvas and in wax and bronze. It is of no coincidence that Degas’ favorite topic -- ballet -- was one of my favorite pastimes as a child. His use of thick brushstrokes and heavy paint on the canvas captures the fairy tale emotions that ballet, even in reality, still evokes in the viewer. I can not help but think of when I saw Degas’ ballerinas as a child and fell in love with ballet for the first time.


Getlein, Mark. Gilbert’s Living with Art, Seventh Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.

Kunze, Fred. "From Revolution to Reconstruction...A Biography of John Locke." 2003. Online. Department of Humanities Computing. Internet. 2 August 2005.
Available: Http://

Roberts, Andrew. "Time line for the history of science and social science." Online. Middlesex University. Internet. 2 August 2005

Anonymous. "Industrial Revolution." 2005. Online. Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia. Internet. 2 August 2005.

Anonymous. "History Central - 1800-1890 AD." 2000. Online. MultiEducator, Inc. Internet. 2 August 2005.

Tuesday, August 02, 2005

Art 101 - Essay 4

The History and Movement of "The Dance Lesson."

"The Dance Lesson", circa 1879, was painted by Edgar Degas. The medium is oil on canvas. Degas lived between the period of 1834-1917. Historically, the world was undergoing drastic changes toward the end of the 19th century. The camera had already been introduced to the public. In America, the Civil War against the North and South and Reconstruction had begun and ended. Although the Civil Rights Act of 1875 had passed, "Jim Crow" laws had also passed locally in states to essentially void the Act. In France, the German-Franco War had also ended, leaving France a defeated nation and Germany installing the Second Reich. Alexander Graham Bell had created the early model telephone. Thomas Edison had successfully invented the phonograph and the light. In Italy, Pope Pius IX had been stripped of all of his powers and imprisoned, while Rome was christened the new capital of Italy, which unified the country. Nationalism was sweeping the world’s societies as citizens began rejecting monarchies or any deity as ruler, and demanding that the people be in power. The Industrial Revolution was also changing the work environment as an agricultural world became an industry and manufacturing-based economy.

The Impressionist movement took the art world by storm. The movement encompassed years from 1800-1960. During a time when art was under the thumb of the church and state, the American Revolution, French Revolution, Industrial Revolution, along with rebels like Karl Marx -- who railed against the bourgeois society -- quickly ushered in a new way of thinking. Impressionism art was a direct product from this change in society. It was Claude Monet’s painting "Impression: Sunrise," which was the first work dubbed as Impressionism art. Impressionism art was described as "scenes glimpsed for a moment, sketched rapidly in paint as impressions of light and color on the eye."

As agriculture workers moved to the cities and took industry and manufacturing jobs, the middle class grew, prompting new art aficionados to demand works that featured scenes and persons from their own lives. The church and state relinquished their patronage roles to artists, which was quickly filled by the new middle class. As the people turned away from the church, they wanted to see paintings that spoke to their spiritual freedom. Nature scenes of the country and landscapes became favorites.

Impressionism art was stylized by thick, heavy brushstrokes. The way the paint was applied to the canvas suddenly became the subject matter rather than the content of the painting. Creating visual harmony through color, light, and shape became the subject. The invention of the camera assisted artists, helping them see how light affects color on an object and in art. As the camera captures many stages in motion as time passes, so to, Impressionism artists used multiple perspective to capture movement on canvas as time passes and light changes. They received their subject matters through observation.

The History and Movement of "The Dancing Couple."

"The Dancing Couple", from 1663, is a painting done by Jan Steen. The period is 1625/1626-1679. The medium is oil on canvas. The historical events that marked this period were: Sir Isaac Newton’s publication of his book "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
in England, in which he introduced his theories on gravity. Louis XIV began ruling France under absolute power, where the king maintains full power with no branches of government sharing the reigns. This reign continued until 1717, when he died. In England, royalist Robert Filmer, supported the king and was a proponent for the theory that absolute power of the king is biblically based and passed down from Adam. He published pamphlets that espoused his beliefs. The king, Charles I was executed and the monarchy was abolished, leaving the people to install the House of Lords to rule England. In America, the newly formed colonies were seeking independence from England and revolted, using John Locke’s words of every man’s right to "life, liberty and property" as their mantra and battle cry.

Baroque, the movement epitomized by the "opulence" that was going on in Europe during this period, speaks to the extravagance of the time as opposed to the meager existence of settlers in America at that time. Baroque was stylized by vibrant, energy-filled colors with contrasts of light and dark. The art during this time was considered as theatrical and ornamental. Artists such as Gianlorenzo Bernini made this movement popular in the 17th century by notable works like St. Peter’s in Rome, which was originally started by Michelangelo and later Carlo Maderno. Bernini finished the work. As the front of the building protruded, viewers noticed that the buildings were molded almost like clay. This is particularly evident in Bernini’s famous Louvre palace in France, which today, houses popular works of art. Another Baroque styled building is the Palace of Versailles. One particular technique used in most Baroque paints was the use of light in the foreground and shadow in the background of a painting. Caravaggio was another notable Baroque artist.

Because "The Couple Dancing" is a Dutch painting, Dutch Baroque was dubbed "bourgeois Baroque." It differed greatly from Spain, Italy, and France. Because Protestantism was the religion of the day, common religious relics were not as popular. The Dutch focused on the people, the family, the home. In turn, Dutch Baroque art was centered around common life. This change was echoed around the world as other countries turned their attention to the common man.


Getlein, Mark. Gilbert’s Living with Art, Seventh Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.

Kunze, Fred. "From Revolution to Reconstruction...A Biography of John Locke." 2003. Online. Department of Humanities Computing. Internet. 2 August 2005.
Available: Http://

Roberts, Andrew. "Time line for the history of science and social science." Online. Middlesex University. Internet. 2 August 2005

Anonymous. "Industrial Revolution." 2005. Online. Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia. Internet. 2 August 2005.

Anonymous. "History Central - 1800-1890 AD." 2000. Online. MultiEducator, Inc. Internet. 2 August 2005.

Monday, August 01, 2005

Art 101 - Time line

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1. "Chinese Horse", ca. 13,000 B. C. was
done during the Magdalenian Period. The
artist is unknown. These cave drawings were
discovery in Lascaux, France. This is an
example of Palaeolithic cave art. The medium
is primitive paints.

2. "Seated Female" is from the 7th–6th
millennium B.C., (6000 - 5000 B. C.) the
Halaf Period, in Mesopotamia or Syria. The
artist is unknown. Ceramic and paint are
the mediums.

3. "Door lintel with lion-griffins and
vase with lotus leaf"
is from the
2nd–3rd century, (100 - 200 A. D.) during
the Parthian Period during the Parthian
dynasty after Alexander the Great's
empire fell. The artist is unknown.
This piece was found in Hatra,
northern Mesopotamia and the medium
is limestone.

4. "Lydenburg Head" ca. 500 A. D.
This piece of fire earthenware
was buried in South Africa. The artist is
unknown. With the help of radiocarbon
dating, we know that this is one of the
oldest known African Iron Age
pieces in that area.

5. "Portrait sculpture of a Zen priest"
was created during Muromachi period (1392–1573)
in the 14th–15th century in Japan. The artist is
unknown. The medium is lacquered wood.

6. "Flowers and Fruits" was done in 1909 by
Henri Matisse (French, 1869–1954). The medium
is oil on canvas.

Unknown. "Chinese Horse". Axial Gallery, Lascaux (France).

Unknown. "Seated female". Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Unknown. "Door lintel with lion-griffins and vase with lotus leaf". Metropolitan
Museum of Art, New York.

Unknown. "Lydenburg Head". Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Unknown. "Portrait sculpture of a Zen priest". Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Matisse, Henri. "Flowers and Fruits". Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

B.C., which stands for "Before Christ," is before the birth of Jesus. A.D., the Latin "anno Domini", means "in the year of our Lord," and is for dates after Jesus's birth. Before the Common Era (B.C.E.) and the Common Era (C.E.), which are exactly the same as B.C. and A.D.

Sunday, July 31, 2005

Art 101 - Ekphrases

Ekphrases: The Smell of Flowers and Fruit

This work is by Henri Matisse. The medium is oil on canvas. On a pale white table sits a bowl of fresh peaches and a China vase filled with wild flowers. The table is covered with a pale white cloth which crinkles at the front of the it. The folds of the crinkles are in values of black and dark grey, and some hints of green. The cloth is short in comparison to most table cloths -- just hanging over the edge of the table, and has a ruffled edge like the end of a small girl’s dress. However, the table does not cover the entire lower bottom of the canvas. There is space between the bottom of the page and the end of the table. That space is in hues of orange and light greens.

The bowl holding the fruit is pale white in color, but because of the shadows and shades it is appears to be a mixture of grey tones with the outline of the bowl in black. To the right of the bowl -- unrealistic as it might be -- is a shadow (of the fruit) that is orange in color. To the left of the bowl is a more realistic shadow of the bowl and the China vase beside it. There are two shadows: one of the bowl, which is light blue and one of the China vase, which is charcoal grey. The mouth of the bowl is snow white. Inside the bowl is an assortment of fruits: rust-orange colored peaches, light orange colored oranges, sunshine yellow lemons, and what appears to be an unrippened peach with green and orange hues mixed. Hanging over the bowl of fruit from the China vase is a fern branch, barely grazing a peach.

To the left of the China vase is a dark aqua blue shadow that spans from the bottom of the vase to the end of the table. The China vase is precisely that, an elongated, slim vase, which from the top of it to the neck is a dark, navy color. From the neck to the bottom, the vase is primarily white, with shadings of grey and occasional blurred shapes that are navy also. Facing the viewer and coming directly out of the mouth of the vase are pure white daisies with lemon yellow centers. Completely surrounding the daisies are red-orange (analogous) colored carnations. Intermixed with the carnations are hunter green flower stems and leaves. Above the carnations to the right are four lone daisies standing apart, but also beside one another. Standing high in the vase are more red-orange colored carnations to the left. Intermixed in those carnations is one single daisy and a sea of green leaves. Three of those hunter green leaves are fern stems with ridged leaves with one stem hanging directly over the bowl of fruit.

The background is a light olive and orange color almost a faux stone appearance. The background is sectioned into a large black square. The square is outlined in black, however the inside of the square is light olive and orange in hue. Another black line above the square box spans from left to right. Between the square and the line above it is a darker hunter green color that also shades the outer left corner of the square. The top of the square is in the middle of the carnations and the bottom of the square is in the middle of the vase. Recall that the square is behind the vase and bowl. It is on the wall. Finally, above the line that is above the square is a black outlined half square. The upper portion of the second square is cut off, and it is the same length of the bottom square. The entire background is light olive and orange in hue, except for the geometric square shapes which are lined in black.

Wednesday, July 27, 2005

Art 101 - Remix "The Three Jackies"

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The Three Jackies: the Artist Statement

There is nothing more profound than a beautifully written verse, except for maybe a piece of artwork that speaks a thousand words all by itself. That notion is precisely why I chose Andy Warhol's artwork as the subject for my art remix. Warhol's works captured snapshots of moments in American history. One particular screen print of his, "Jackie", done in 1964 is the source of my art remix titled "The Three Jackies". "Jackie" was created during the Pop Art Movement..
I particularly favor "Jackie", because when American history is examined, this photo of Jackie Kennedy Onassis is remembered as the joyous period during President John Kennedy's administration. Once again, Warhol captures a poignant, but brief moment in time, and the world would later learn the extent of that brevity. Jackie's smiling face, soon to be covered with the veil of mourning for her mythical, fallen husband, is crowned with the beauty of a royal matriarch. Indeed, that is what she eventually became in the minds and hearts of the American public and the world...and she was only 34 years old. This piece is emotionally moving to me, because it speaks to the uncertainties in life. We can never know what is around the next corner. From moment to moment life is fleeting and a lifetime of building for the future can be torn apart as you are looking in the past, as Jackie did while turning the corner on that fateful day in Texas. No one in my lifetime has faced adversity with more grace and dignity than Jackie, so with that knowledge, I chose "Jackie" as my inspiration piece.
In my remix "The Three Jackies", I used the medium of black and white photography to highlight the values of light and dark in the work. It simulates the screen printing appearance. A photo of both myself and my sister is pictured in the work. Because of my sister's personality resemblance to Jackie, I felt compelled to feature her in this work. The irony of their parallel lives are eerie. My sister is also 34 years old, the age Jackie was when she became a widow. My sister, like Jackie has two young children, a girl and boy, like John John and Caroline. She also, like Jackie is the epitome of good taste and poise, and I can personally understand why she would be so revered. Her strength in overcoming adversities, like Jackie, is also unchallenged.
"The Three Jackies" was completely computer generated and created on my desktop. The vibrant yellows and blues and funky purples and greens reflect the psychedelic movement and the colors of the sixties and seventies. This piece has the iconic Jackie photo in it twice to set the pattern and mood. The scale is large and dominates the canvas. The Warhol quote, "I've decided I can't wear odd things. I look like a weirdo. I'm going to stay in basic black," is a description he often used with himself. He was constantly adjusting his appearance to balance the eclectic with the odd. The four photos featured in the work are all of strong women in the prime of their lives with their futures uncertain. In the original "Jackie" by Warhol, he uses sensual colors of deep blues and reds over eyebrows and on her lips to create a figure who resembles Marilyn Monroe in many ways. In "the Three Jackies" neither Jackie, my sister, nor myself is covered in facial colors. Jackie is regal in her bare face. The strong contour lines of her face elude to a inner knowing, a sense that her life simply could not go unchanged forever. The strong colors also support the feelings of grandeur exuding from the work, though small in size. Warhol's most famous quote that "in the future everybody will be famous for 15 minutes" is also reflected in "the Three Jackies" as my sister and myself is immortalized on canvas for a brief moment.


Hoban, Phoebe. Basquiat: A Quick Killing in Art. New York: Viking, 1998.

Anonymous. '15 Minutes of Fame." 2003. Online. The Andy Warhol Museum. Internet. 26 July 2005.

Tuesday, July 26, 2005

Art 101 - The Two Interpretations of Warhol - Two Films

In both films THE LIFE AND TIMES OF ANDY WARHOL SUPERSTAR, by Chuck Workman and
ANDY WARHOL, by Artists of the 20th Century, Kultur International Flims, Warhol's "car crashes" piece of work is described as a peak into the mind of the artist himself. While the ANDY WARHOL film interprets the work as Warhol's obsession with the dynamics of life and death, the film THE LIFE AND TIMES OF ANDY WARHOL SUPERSTAR interprets the crash scenes as Warhol's metaphors for the rise in violence in America. As with most of his works, this print is a snapshot of history, a moment in time, which happens to be during the 1960s as violence in America was escalating.

Thursday, July 21, 2005

Art 101 - Steps of Screen Printing Process

6 Steps of the Screen Printing Process

1. Choose an image with large areas and contrasts of black and white.
2. Image processing - Crop the image. Have it transferred into a high contrast black & white image on transparent film. This transparency is called a film positive, used to burn the image onto the silkscreen.
3. Screen burning - Transfer film positive onto the silkscreen. Coat the screen mesh with a light-sensitive emulsion. When the emulsion dries, the positive is placed onto the silk screen and exposed to a bright light. This fixes the image onto the screen, creating a stencil where an area is open for ink to be pushed through. Complete the silkscreen.
4. Tracing - Before beginning decide on the multiple or single composition for the final painting. Lay out quidelines for the final image onto the canvas, by tracing the film positive and creating a drawing of the silkscreen image. Transfer the tracing onto the canvas by using carbon paper.
5. Under painting - Choose colors to paint the canvas. Use the traced lines as a guide or use various sizes of color lines.
6. Screen printing - After the layer of paint dried, line up the image on the silkscreen with the painted image on the canvas. This process is called registration. Next, put some ink onto the silkscreen and drag the squeegee across the silkscreen, pushing ink through the open areas in the mesh of the screen.

Works Cited
Anonymous. "Create Your Own Screen Print." 2005. Online. The Andy Warhol Museum. Internet.

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